Information concerning ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements

ICAO's "Doc 9835, Manual on the Implementation of Language Proficiency Requirements” -2nd edition - provides all information of the requirements including good practice in language testing.

ICAO's "Cir 323 AN/185, Guidelines for Aviation English Training Programmes" provides a lot of information regarding language training (thereunder a reference to my website

For further information on the worldwide implementation on LPRs see ICAO's Flight Safety Information Exchange (FSIX).

Movies on the necessity of the ICAO language proficiency requirements:

Movie 1

Movie 2


Organisation concerned with Aviation English:

The websites of major Aviation English service/ test providers:

Latitude Aviation English Services

ELPAC (English Language Proficiency for Aeronautical Communication)

TEA–Test of English for Aviation

TELLCAP®- Test of English Language Level for Controllers and Pilots



Information on language test development and management: (interesting videos, helpful for managing quality of language tests)

Recommendable books:

Understanding Language Testing. By Dan Douglas (2009)

Practical Language Testing. By Glenn Fulcher (2010)

Empirisches Arbeiten in Linguistik und Sprachlehrforschung.Anleitungen zu quantitativen Studien von der Planungsphase bis zum Forschungsbericht. By Ruth Albert & Nicole Marx. (2010)

Linguistic Analysis of English Phraseology and Plain Lnguage in Airground Communication. (Stéphanie Lopez) In: Journal of Air Transport Studies, Volume 4, Number 1, Winter 2013, ISSN: 1791-6771

Henry John Emery (2014) Developments in LSP Testing 30 Years On? The Case of Aviation English , Language Assessment Quarterly, 11:2, 198-215, DOI: 10.1080/15434303.2014.894516

Aviation Communication. Between Theory and Practice. By Silvia Hansen-Schirra, Karin Maksymski (eds.) (2013)

For further publication concerning Aviation English check: A list of references for Aviation English course and test developers, researchers, teachers and examiners

Final Report on a Survey of Aviation English Tests by J Charles Alderson, Lancaster University

Manual for Language Test Development and Examining (by ALTE on behalf of the Language Policy Division, European Council)


Quality management for oral language tests:

Begriffe der Qualitätssicherung. Von Hannelore Wessel


Recommendable books and publications:

Assessing English Language Proficiency in International Aviation: Issues of Reliability, Validity, and Aviation Safety. By Ruixia Yan (2009).

Aviation Communication: Between Theory and Practice. Karin Maksymski, Silvia Hansen-Schirra (eds.). (2013).


Studies in linguistics of Aviation English and information on English as a world language (English varieties worldwide, English as a lingua franca)

Phraseology and Plain Language: Norm and Usage in Air-Ground Communications by Stéphanie Lopez (University of Toulouse - Le Mirail)

“Say again?” Miscommunications in Air Traffic Control by David McMillan (Queensland University of Technology).

A Study of EL2 Pilots' Radio Communication in the General Aviation Environment by Dominique Estival (University of Sydney) and Brett Molesworth (University of New South Wales).

To get an impression of various forms of pronounciation amongst so-called "native speakers" of English:

SURVEY by Ana Lúcia Taveres Monteiro (ANAC, Brasil)

Analyses of aircraft incidents/ accidents:

Archives of aviation accidents and incidents:

Cockpit voice recordings and transcripts of accidents:


Other intersting websites:

Monitoring ATC radio:

Live flight tracking:

Flight planning:

Kostenlose VFR-Flugplanung:

Great websites for learning English:

BBC Learning English

English for everybody

For more check here.

A placement test can be found here.